السبت، 18 فبراير، 2012

Types Of Speech Acts

 Speech acts can be classified according to their function into five different categories. In fact, this classification may be attributed to the illocutionary act, but so long as the theory is based mainly on the illocutionary acts, it is not wrong to mention this category as a main branch in the theory. Those five divisions focus on the function of the utterance rather than anything else. The five divisions are the representatives, the directives, the expressives, the commissives, and the declaratives (Jaworowska: par. 4).

a.      Representatives: They are the thoughts and beliefs of the speaker which include assertions, claims and reports.
b.     Directives: The directives direct the addressee to do something for the addressor. They are like suggestions, requests, and commands.
c.     Commissives: This branch includes promises, threats, and offers. They occur when the speaker directs himself to do something.
d.     Expressives: They express the state of the speaker. Examples of this branch are apologies, complain, and thanks.
e.      Declaratives: The declaratives declare something to change a current state. Examples of those declaratives are decrees and declarations. (Huang 107)
     The class of declaratives can be further subdivided into 2 subdivisions, which only occur when the speaker is in full authority;
I.                   Effectives: They refer to words that can change an institutional state of affairs, "such as a minister baptizing a baby" (Nastri: par. 14).
II.                Verdictives: They refer to a verdict made by a person in an authority. It means producing another kind of truth by that person in authority, as in "I find him innocent", and ' strike' (Nastri: par. 14).

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